The Psychological Model has been supported by a wealth of research that highlights the strong relationship between addiction and mental health issues. Studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have co-occurring mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that experiencing trauma or significant life stressors can increase an individual’s vulnerability to addiction. Treatment approaches informed by the Disease Model often involve a combination of pharmacological and behavioral therapies, as well as peer support and community-based resources. For example, medications such as methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone have been used to treat opioid addiction by targeting specific aspects of the brain’s reward system and mitigating withdrawal symptoms.

A great first step would be a decision to understand the root of the biopsychosocial problem itself and to acquire additional information about the numerous existing options for a treatment. The use of social media became a daily activity for many individuals, with recreational, informational, and social purposes, to name a few. However, for some subjects, the use of these platforms may become problematic and generate functioning impairments in many life areas. Given this, the present research aimed at investigating the factor that may contribute to Social Media Addiction, by focusing on Fear of Missing Out and Family Functioning Patterns. Additionally, they use this information to ensure that all of the client’s needs are met, as many medical issues can manifest with mental health symptoms.

Communicating Clinical Evidence

The risk of mortality is increased due to overdoses; there is an increased risk of acquiring bacterial infections, and other blood-borne pathogens such as HIV and HCV, as described earlier. Concurrent mental illness and addiction the norm rather than exception further characterize individuals with severe opiate addiction (Rush, Urbanoski, Bassani, et al. 2008). These individuals may experience constant hyperarousal, hypervigilance, anxiety, and abuse drugs may be an effective way to regulate these emotional experiences (Felitti et al., 1998). Thus, numerous psychological factors and experiences can increase the risk of changing how one feels (or regulating emotions) via drugs of abuse. The DNB accomplishes its mission by developing and supporting an extramural research program that provides an understanding of the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drugs of abuse and its consequences. The research supported by DNB provides important fundamental information to prevent and/or intervene in drug use and addiction.

Biological, psychological and social factors are involved to some extent in most phases of schizophrenia. Few morbid conditions could be interpreted as being of the nature “one microbe, one illness”; rather, there are usually multiple interacting causes and contributing factors. Thus, obesity leads to both diabetes and arthritis; both obesity and arthritis limit exercise capacity, adversely affecting blood pressure and cholesterol levels; and all of the above, except perhaps arthritis, contribute to both stroke and coronary artery disease. Some of the effects (depression after a heart attack or stroke) can then become causal (greater likelihood of a second similar event).

Substance Use in Young Swiss Men: The Interplay of Perceived Social Support and Dispositional Characteristics

To some extent, subcultures define themselves in opposition to the mainstream culture. Subcultures may reject some, if not all, of the values and beliefs of the mainstream culture in favor of their own, and they will often adapt some elements of that culture in ways quite different from those originally intended (Hebdige 1991; Issitt 2009;). Individuals often identify with subcultures—such as drug cultures—because they feel excluded from or unable to participate in mainstream society. The subculture provides an alternative source of social support and cultural activities, but those activities can run counter to the best interests of the individual.

  • In this framework, therefore, FoMO acquires the role of mediator, originating from a deficit in psychological needs and driving towards the search for self-determination in online platforms to such a level as to develop an addiction [50, 51].
  • The Disease Model of addiction emerged as a response to the shortcomings of the Moral Model and has gained widespread acceptance, particularly within the medical and scientific communities.
  • According to this model, addictive behaviors are driven by a deep-rooted desire to fill an inner void or to find a sense of purpose and belonging.
  • Practice guidelines for a cognitive-behavioural approach with clients and the scope, duration, and aims of cognitive-behavioural alcohol treatment are explained.

So, various forms of psychotherapy are necessary to help learn how to identify negative thinking patterns related to addiction and replace them with new healthy thought patterns. 2021 © – Big database of free essay examples for students at all levels. Ethics approval was received from the Ethics Committee for Scientific Research (CERS; study number 003/D178) of the LUMSA University of Rome, Italy.

The Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction

For clinical purposes, those polygenic scores will of course not replace an understanding of the intricate web of biological and social factors that promote or prevent expression of addiction in an individual case; rather, they will add to it [49]. Meanwhile, however, genome-wide association studies in What is a Halfway House? What to Expect in Halfway Housing addiction have already provided important information. For instance, they have established that the genetic underpinnings of alcohol addiction only partially overlap with those for alcohol consumption, underscoring the genetic distinction between pathological and nonpathological drinking behaviors [50].

  • He goes on to conclude that “generally, genetic prediction of the risk of disease (even with whole-genome sequencing data) is unlikely to be informative for most people who have a so-called average risk of developing an addiction disorder” [7].
  • Additionally, certain environments have specific social norms related to drug use (e.g., “Everyone experiments a little with drugs in college”).
  • To treat the biological aspect of mental illness and addiction, sometimes medications are used.
  • Moreover, the model does not solve the problem of free choice, as the model still, even at the systems (macro) level, has causally sufficient preceding conditions.
  • That does not in any way reflect a superordinate assumption that neuroscience will achieve global causality.

The anticipated benefit of cap laws in preventing opioid overdose, death and addiction was counterbalanced by fears that decreased opioid prescribing could hurt patient satisfaction. Assessing the impact of state prescribing cap laws on opioids prescriptions is essential, given the large amount of opioids prescribed for postoperative pain management and the risk for addiction or overdose. When we look at the psychological dimension, it also allows us to understand and work more effectively in helping individuals, families and communities thrive and flourish in a positive way. When we understand the impact of our perception, purpose of rewards, motivation, expectancy, and maturation, it helps us to find solutions to the addictive behaviours that may not have been an option previously. It allows for the development of more positive behaviours by understanding alternatives, and more possibilities and gives opportunities for making positive decisions with those options.

Interdisciplinary Professional Support

These criticisms state that the brain disease view is deterministic, fails to account for heterogeneity in remission and recovery, places too much emphasis on a compulsive dimension of addiction, and that a specific neural signature of addiction has not been identified. We acknowledge that some of these criticisms have merit, but assert that the foundational premise that addiction has a neurobiological basis is fundamentally sound. We also emphasize that denying that addiction is a brain disease is a harmful standpoint since it contributes to reducing access to healthcare and treatment, the consequences of which are catastrophic. Here, we therefore address these criticisms, and in doing so provide a contemporary update of the brain disease view of addiction. We provide arguments to support this view, discuss why apparently spontaneous remission does not negate it, and how seemingly compulsive behaviors can co-exist with the sensitivity to alternative reinforcement in addiction.

  • But in the case of an addiction, a person will typically react negatively when they don’t get their “reward.” For example, someone addicted to coffee can experience physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms such as severe headaches and irritability.
  • By doing so, we can develop more comprehensive and effective treatment approaches that recognize the multifaceted nature of addiction and support individuals on their path to recovery.
  • It also recognizes the importance of patient self-awareness, relationships with providers in the healthcare system, and individual life context.
  • This area, known as the prefrontal cortex, is the very region that should help you recognize the harms of using addictive substances.
  • It is important not to look at the biological dimension as neurobiology alone, but to also take into consideration aspects of health functioning such as addictive behaviour, diet, exercise, self-care, nutrition, sleep and genetics.
  • While the practicality of biopsychosocial systems model may allow for a more integrative explanation for addiction, it does not explain addiction entirely.

To achieve this goal, we first discuss the nature of the disease concept itself, and why we believe it is important for the science and treatment of addiction. This is followed by a discussion of the main points raised when the notion of addiction as a brain disease has come under criticism. Key among those are claims that spontaneous remission rates are high; that a specific brain pathology is lacking; and that people suffering from addiction, rather than behaving “compulsively”, in fact show a preserved ability to make informed and advantageous choices. In the process of discussing these issues, we also address the common criticism that viewing addiction as a brain disease is a fully deterministic theory of addiction. For our argument, we use the term “addiction” as originally used by Leshner [1]; in Box 1, we map out and discuss how this construct may relate to the current diagnostic categories, such as Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and its different levels of severity (Fig. 1). There are several processes that actively contribute to substance use with inputs and outputs on biological and psycho-social levels.

These informants experienced several demanding challenges after inpatient treatment. They talked about the use of substances as isolated incidents or a more regular occurrence. Most of them started using substances at age 12–15, and heroin or amphetamines were their main substances, combined with cannabis, prescription drugs and alcohol.

The prominent belief several decades ago was that addiction resulted from bad choices stemming from a morally weak person. In fact, in 1956, the American Medical Association declared alcoholism a disease that should be addressed with medical and psychological approaches (Mann et al., 2000). We already mentioned how addiction could be triggered when one suffers from a mental health disorder. It is very common for young men who feel sad, depressed, anxious, and stressed out to turn to alcohol or drugs.

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